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Главная arrow English arrow Social History of Yemen
Social History of Yemen Версия в формате PDF 
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Cover Коротаев А.В. Социальная история Йемена, Х в. до н.э. – ХХ в. н.э. Вождества и племена страны Хашид и Бакил  

Коротаев А.В.
Социальная история Йемена, Х в. до н.э. – ХХ в. н.э. Вождества и племена страны Хашид и Бакил
192 pp.(Russian). 210 RUR
ISBN 5-484-00529-9



DOWNLOAD IN PDF FORMAT  Andrey Korotayev  SOCIAL HISTORY OF YEMEN Chiefdoms and Tribes in the Land of Hashid and Bakil 2nd edition, extended and amendedMoscow: Editorial URSS, 2006  Extensive summary[1] 



Due to certain factors[2] the first South Arabian states arose in the area of the Internal Yemeni Lowland (al-Mashriq). At the beginning, in the early 1st millennium BC, the main area of the South Arabian civilization looked like a bow-like strip along the edge of the Ṣayhad desert (with the main centers in the areas of Marib, Timna`, Shabwah and the wadis al-Jawf and Markhah – Beeston 1975a: 5; 1975b: 28; Bafaqih 1985: 2021; Robin 1984: 198; 1991c: 52; 1991e: 63 &c.). Civilization penetrated into the Yemeni Highlands sometime later, and this process seems to have been often connected to the subjugation of the considerable territories of the Highlands by the Lowland states, first of all by the Sabaean and Qatabanian «commonwealths». It was also connected to the cultural influence of the Lowland communities, colonization &c.[3]

                In the Middle Period (the 1st4th centuries AD) we see the Highlands politically dominating in Yemen (Beeston 1975a: 5; 1975b: 29; Rhodokanakis 1927: 113; Robin 1982b: 17; 1984: 212; 1991c: 52; 1991e: 63, 67 &c; Korotayev 1993; 1995a: 8384). Some role in the process of the transition of the dominant position from the internal Lowlands to the Highlands was certainly played by the transfer of the main incense trade routes from land to sea. This must have caused a considerable decline in the economic importance of the edge of the Ṣayhad desert (Ryckmans J. 1951: 331; Bowen 1958a: 35; Irvine 1973: 301; Robin 1982a, I: 98; 1982b: 17; 1984: 212; Crone 1987: 2336; Audouin, Breton, Robin 1988: 74 &c). Quite a significant role may have also been played by the processes of the Arabian aridization (see for example Fedele 1988: 36; Robin 1991e: 63; 1991f: 88). But the most important factor seems to have been the silting of the irrigation systems.[4] As a result, the situation in the Lowlands became similar to an ecological catastrophe (Serjeant 1960: 583; Piotrovskiy, Piotrovskaya 1984: 107; Robin 1984: 220221; 1991f: 88; Sauer et al. 1988: 102).


[1] My deepest gratitude goes to G. Rex Smith for his help with the preparation of the English version of a part of this text.
[2] I have tried to present their description and analysis in: Korotayev 1993с; 1995a: 79–81.
[3] The main role here seems to have belonged to the Sabaean center; however, the role of the Qatabanian center also seems to have been rather important (especially in the second half of the 1st millennium BC – see e.g. von Wissmann 1968). The Minaean-Madhabian center also appears to have exerted considerable cultural influence on certain areas of the Highlands (see e.g. C 609; von Wissmann 1964a: 319, 343–344, 355; Robin 1982a, I: 48–49; Bafaqih 1988 &c).
[4] It seems to be partly caused by the degradation of the natural plant cover of the Western slopes of the Yemeni Mountains due both to the anthropogenic factors and the probable climatic change (e.g. Robin 1991f: 88).

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